Amps: is a unit of electric current, or amount of electric charge per second. The ampere is an SI base unit,
and is named after André-Marie Ampère, one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism.

Baking Soda: Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the
formula NaHCO3. Above 60 °C (140F), it gradually decomposes into sodium carbonate, water and carbon
dioxide. The conversion is fast at 200 °C (392F)

Browns Gas: Oxyhydrogen gas produced in a common-ducted electrolyzer has been referred to as “Brown’s
gas”,after Yull Brown who received a utility patent for a series cell common-ducted electrolyzer in 1977 and
1978 (the term “Brown’s gas” is not used in his patents, but “a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen” is
referenced). Brown’s torches also used an electric arc to increase the temperature of the flame (called
atomic welding):

Bubbler: is a simple flashback device, used to prevent the burning gas from entering the HHO gas
generating chamber and creating an explosion. The device by design can itself explode the quantity of gas
in the head space above the water, destroying the bubbler, spreading the diluted catalyst and shrapnel from
the container. For safety, reduce the head space to the bare minimum needed, change the water on some
schedule to prevent the catalyst becoming strong enough to create chemical burns.  
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Catalyst : is a chemical compound that acts to speed up a reaction, but in the process is not itself changed.
Therefore the catalyst, at the end of the reaction, is free to act again to assist another reactant through the
reaction. Catalysts work by lowering the energy barrier between the reactants and the products. In this case:

2H2O + ENERGY = 2H2 + O2

where it normally takes a tremendous amount of energy to convert reactants to products - the addition of a
catalyst can decrease the amount of energy required and therefore speed the reaction up!

2H2O + CATALYST+ energy = 2H2 + O2 + CATALYST

Cell: is a device used for generating an electromotive force (voltage) and current from chemical reactions. In
HHO production the cell is very similar to a battery cell, except instead of producing electricity, it produces
HHO. Many Shapes and Styles are in use, many actually look like a multi cell battery. In fact most cells using
catalyst will show a degrading voltage across the terminals when power is removed.

Check Valve: Limits the flow of gas to one direction only. Use a check valve between the bubbler and
generator to prevent unwanted pressure build up in the generator, and a safety against a low level bubbler.
A check valve, such as used on torches, is strongly recommended. Many homemade ones are being
designed for hobbyists to build. Many are available at welding supply houses and aquarium shops (they’re
used in fish tanks).

ECU: In automotive electronics, an electronic control unit (ECU), also called a control unit, or control module,
is an embedded system that controls one or more of the electrical systems or subsystems in a vehicle.
Some modern cars have up to 80 ECUs, including:

Engine Control Unit - also known as an ECU
Transmission Control Unit - TCU
the above two may be combined, and referred to as a Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
Airbag control unit - ACU
Telephone Control Unit - TCU
Man Machine Interface - MMI
Door Control unit
Seat Control Unit
Climate Control Unit
speed control unit
Convenience control unit - CCU
Managing the increasing complexity of ECUs and number of ECUs in a vehicle has become a key challenge
for OEMs.
ECU -often called the brain of a car
In some older vehicles, the ECU is referred to as an ECM (electronic control module).

EFIE - Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer: It’s purpose is to make it possible for other fuel efficiency devices
to work. Basically an HHO fuel cell (HFE cell) makes the engine think something is wrong because it adds
more oxygen into the engine, and makes it do things to adjust for this “wrongness”. The actions it takes
based on the oxygen sensor data, makes it negate the efficiency increase that would have been realized by
the efficiency device - so by basically the ECU computer in your car actually uses MORE fuel in order to
compensate for the extra oxygen so that wipes out the whole point of the fuel cell. The EFIE solves this by
adjusting the signal to the computer so the computer is happy with the readings it’s getting and makes the
correct adjustments for the various conditions of the engine.  
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Electrolysis of water: See linked page.

Flashback device: A device that prevents a flame front from returning to the source of gas and causing an
explosion. example: like a torch flame traveling down the acetylene or Oxygen hose to the tank and igniting
the tank of fuel.  
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HHO: is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases, typically in a 2:1 atomic ratio, the same
proportion as water. This gaseous mixture is widely used for torches for the processing of refractory
materials. HHO is what we add to our fuel mix in our engines and this is what gives us better gas mileage!

HHO will combust when brought to its autoignition temperature. For a stoichiometric mixture at normal
atmospheric pressure, autoignition occurs at about 570 °C (1065 °F). The minimum energy required to
ignite such a mixture with a spark is about 20 microjoules. At normal temperature and pressure,
oxyhydrogen can burn when it is between about 4% and 94% hydrogen by volume. Abbreviation for
Hydrogen Hydrogen Oxygen, which is what water (H2O) is broken down into.  
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HFE: Hydrogen Fuel Enhancement - newer term for HHO

Joule: is the SI unit of energy measuring heat, electricity and mechanical work. It was named after English
physicist James Prescott Joule. For example - kilo joule is a unit used when measuring.

KOH: potassium hydroxide. It is very alkaline and is a “strong base”. The dissolution in water is strongly
exothermic, producing substantial amounts of energy in form of heat, leading to temperature rise,
sometimes up to boiling point and over. As a very strong base/alkali, potassium hydroxide is very corrosive,
both towards inorganic as well as organic materials, including living tissues; care must be therefore taken,
when handling the substance and its solutions. It can be used as a catalyst instead of baking soda in the
HHO fuel cell.

Liter/ litre: international unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). One liter/ litre is equal to 0.001 cubic metre
and is denoted as 1 cubic decimetre (dm3).

Millilitre: defined as one-thousandth of a liter (one cubic centimetre)

MPG: Miles per gallon (1 mile per gallon = 0.425143707 kilometers per liter)

MAP: manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP) is one of the sensors used in an internal combustion
engine's electronic control system. Engines that use a MAP sensor are typically fuel injected. The manifold
absolute pressure sensor provides instantaneous manifold pressure information to the engine's electronic
control unit (ECU). This is necessary to calculate air density and determine the engine's air mass flow rate,
which in turn is used to calculate the appropriate fuel flow.
An engine control system that uses manifold absolute pressure to calculate air mass uses the speed-
density method. Engine speed (RPM) and air temperature are also necessary to complete the speed-
density calculation. Not all fuel-injected engines use a MAP sensor to infer mass air flow; some use a MAF
(mass air flow) sensor. Several makes use the MAP sensor in OBD II applications to test the EGR valve for
functionality. Most notably General Motors uses this approach.

MAF: mass flow sensor (MAF) responds to the amount of a fluid (usually a gas) flowing through a chamber
containing the sensor. It is intended to be insensitive to the density of the fluid.

NaOH: Sodium hydroxide, also known as, caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base. Sodium hydroxide forms
a strong alkaline solution when dissolved in a solvent such as water. This can also be used as a catalyst.

OrthoHydrogen: spin isomers of hydrogen

Oxyhydrogen: is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases, typically in a 2:1 atomic ratio, the same
proportion as water.
Oxyhydrogen will combust when brought to its autoignition temperature. For a stoichiometric mixture at
normal atmospheric pressure, autoignition occurs at about 570 °C (1065 °F). The minimum energy
required to ignite such a mixture with a spark is about 20 microjoules. At normal temperature and pressure,
oxyhydrogen can burn when it is between about 4% and 94% hydrogen by volume.

Oxygen sensor: or lambda sensor, is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in
the gas or liquid being analyzed. It was developed by Robert Bosch GmbH during the late 1960s under
supervision by Dr. Günter Bauman. The original sensing element is made with a thimble-shaped zirconia
ceramic coated on both the exhaust and reference sides with a thin layer of platinum and comes in both
heated and unheated forms. The planar-style sensor entered the market in 1998 (also pioneered by Robert
Bosch GmbH) and significantly reduced the mass of the ceramic sensing element as well as incorporating
the heater within the ceramic structure. This resulted in a sensor that both started operating sooner and
responded faster. The most common application is to measure the exhaust gas concentration of oxygen for
internal combustion engines in automobiles and other vehicles. Divers also use a similar device to
measure the partial pressure of oxygen in their breathing gas.

Parahydrogen: spin isomers of Hydrogen

PWM: Pulse Width Modulators or PWM can limit the amount of current that an HHO generator draws and
keep it from going beyond a set amount. It controls the amount of amperage your hydrogen generator uses.
The higher the frequency generally the more efficient you HHO generator will be with less current while
controlling temperatures.
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Salt: composed primarily of sodium chloride, with the formula NaCl. elemental chlorine is usually produced
by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water. Along with chlorine, this chloralkali process yields
hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide, according to the chemical equation
2NaCl + 2H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2NaOH
Chlorine It has a disagreeable, suffocating odor that is detectable in concentrations as low as 3.5 ppm and
is poisonous. This should be avoided as a catalyst completely just for personal safety.

Sodium carbonate: also know as soda ash, sal soda etc is an excellent electrolyte or catalyst can be
bought in laundry section (sal soda, washing soda) and in spa/pool stores for decreasing ph. It also doesnt
corrode the anodes.

Sulphuric Acid: is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4. It is soluble in water at all
concentrations. Some common concentrations are

10%, dilute sulfuric acid for laboratory use,
33.5%, battery acid (used in lead-acid batteries),
62.18%, chamber or fertilizer acid,
77.67%, tower or Glover acid,
98%, concentrated acid.
The hydration reaction of sulfuric acid is highly exothermic. If water is added to the concentrated sulfuric
acid, it can react, boil and spit dangerously. One should always add the acid to the water rather than the
water to the acid. Sulfuric acid reacts with most metals via a single displacement reaction to produce
hydrogen gas and the metal sulfate. Dilute H2SO4 attacks iron, aluminium, zinc, manganese, magnesium
and nickel, but reactions with tin and copper require the acid to be hot and concentrated. Lead and tungsten,
however, are resistant to sulfuric acid.

Volts: is the SI derived unit of electric potential difference or electromotive force.[1][2] It is named in honor of
the Lombard physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), who invented the voltaic pile, the first modern
chemical battery

Watt: is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule of energy per second. It measures a rate of energy
use or production.

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